The Rule of 8 : High Performance Scalable Systems

Wille Faler has an interesting article on his blog where he highlights 8 core principles for building high performance, scalable systems. It’s an extension to the list of Best Practices for Speeding Up Your Web Site, but Wille is focussing on general principles for any scalable system rather than just websites.

In short, we have :

  • Offload the database – Avoid hitting the database, and avoid opening transactions or connections unless you absolutely need to use them.
  • What a difference a cache makes – For read heavy applications caching is the easiest way offload the database.
  • Cache as coarse-grained objects as possible – Coarse-grained objects save CPU and time by requiring fewer reads to assemble objects.
  • Don’t store transient state permanently – Is it really necessary to store your transient data in the database?
  • Location, Location – put things close to where they are supposed to be delivered.
  • Constrain concurrent access to limited resource – it’s quicker to let a single thread do work and finish rather than flooding finite resources with 200 client threads.
  • Staged, asynchronous processing – separate a process using asynchronicity into separate steps mediated by queues and executed by a limited number of workers in each step.
  • Minimize network chatter – Avoid remote communication if you can as it’s slower and less reliable than local computation.
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